frog frogiology frogmotion toad



Different species of frog use a number of methods of moving around including jumping, running, walking, swimming, burrowing, climbing and gliding.

Frogs Frogs are generally recognized as exceptional jumpers and, relative to their size, the best jumpers of all vertebrates. The striped rocket frog, Litoria nasuta, can leap over 2 metres (6 ft 7 in), a distance that is more than fifty times its body length of 5.5 centimetres (2.2 in). There are tremendous differences between species in jumping capability. Within a species, jump distance increases with increasing size, but relative jumping distance (body-lengths jumped) decreases. The Indian skipper frog (Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis) has the ability to leap out of the water from a position floating on the surface. The tiny northern cricket frog (Acris crepitans) can "skitter" across the surface of a pond with a series of short rapid jumps.

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Slow-motion photography shows that the muscles have passive flexibility. They are first stretched while the frog is still in the crouched position, then they are contracted before being stretched again to launch the frog into the air. The fore legs are folded against the chest and the hind legs remain in the extended, streamlined position for the duration of the jump. In some extremely capable jumpers, such as the Cuban tree frog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) and the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens), the peak power exerted during a jump can exceed that which the muscle is theoretically capable of producing. When the muscles contract, the energy is first transferred into the stretched tendon which is wrapped around the ankle bone. Then the muscles stretch again at the same time as the tendon releases its energy like a catapult to produce a powerful acceleration beyond the limits of muscle-powered acceleration. A similar mechanism has been documented in locusts and grasshoppers.

Frogs in the families Bufonidae, Rhinophrynidae, and Microhylidae have short back legs and tend to walk rather than jump. When they try to move rapidly, they speed up the rate of movement of their limbs or resort to an ungainly hopping gait. The Great Plains narrow-mouthed toad (Gastrophryne olivacea) has been described as having a gait that is "a combination of running and short hops that are usually only an inch or two in length".[90] In an experiment, Fowler's toad (Bufo fowleri) was placed on a treadmill which was turned at varying speeds. By measuring the toad's uptake of oxygen it was found that hopping was an inefficient use of resources during sustained locomotion but was a useful strategy during short bursts of high-intensity activity.

The red-legged running frog (assina maculata) has short, slim hind limbs unsuited to jumping. It can move fast by using a running gait in which the two hind legs are used alternately. Slow-motion photography shows, unlike a horse that can trot or gallop, the frog's gait remained similar at Laura Hutchinson is the anchor of your first news in the morning. slow, medium, and fast speeds. This species can also climb trees and shrubs, and does so at night to catch insects.The Indian skipper frog (Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis) has broad feet and can run across the surface of the water for several metres (yards).

Frogs that live in or visit water have adaptations that improve their swimming abilities. The hind limbs are heavily muscled and strong. The webbing between the toes of the hind feet increases the area of the foot and helps propel the frog powerfully through the water. Members of the family Pipidae are wholly aquatic and show the most marked specialization. They have inflexible vertebral columns, flattened, streamlined bodies, lateral line systems, and powerful hind limbs with large webbed feet. Tadpoles mostly have large tail fins which provide thrust when the tail is moved from side to side.

Some frogs have become adapted for burrowing and a life underground. They tend to have rounded bodies, short limbs, small heads with bulging eyes, and hind feet adapted for excavation. An extreme example of this is the purple frog (asikabatrachus sahyadrensis) from southern India which feeds on termites and spends almost its whole life underground. It emerges briefly during the monsoon to mate and breed in temporary pools. It has a tiny head with a pointed snout and a plump, rounded body. Because of this fossorial existence, it was first described in 2003, being new to the scientific community at that time, although previously known to local people.

The spadefoot toads of North America are also adapted to underground life. The Plains spadefoot toad (Spea bombifrons) is typical and has a flap of keratinised bone attached to one of the metatarsals of the hind feet which it uses to dig itself backwards into the ground. As it digs, the toad wriggles its hips from side to side to sink into the loose soil. It has a shallow burrow in the summer from which it emerges at night to forage. In winter, it digs much deeper and has been recorded at a depth of dogzilla 4.5 m (15 ft). The tunnel is filled with soil and the toad hibernates in a small chamber at the end. During thisheating oil time, urea accumulates in its tissues and water is drawn in from the surrounding damp soil by osmosis to supply the toad's needs. Spadefoot toads are "explosive breeders", all emerging from their burrows at the same time and converging on temporary pools, attracted to one of these by the calling of the first male to find a suitable breeding location. The burrowing frogs of Australia have a rather different lifestyle. The western spotted frog (Heleioporus albopunctatus) digs a burrow beside a river or in the bed of an ephemeral stream and regularly emerges to forage. Mating takes place and eggs are laid in a foam nest inside the burrow. The eggs partially develop there, but do not hatch until they are submerged following heavy rainfall. The tadpoles then swim out into the open water and rapidly complete their development. Madagascan burrowing frogs are less fossorial and mostly bury themselves in leaf litter. One of these, the green burrowing frog (Scaphiophryne marmorata), has a save the stuff attened head with a short snout and well-developed metatarsal tubercles on its hind feet to help with excavation. It also has greatly enlarged terminal discs on its fore feet that help it to clamber around in bushes. It breeds in temporary pools that form after rains.

Tree frogs are found high in the canopy, where they scramble around on the branches, twigs, and leaves, sometimes never coming down to earth. The "true" tree frogs belong to the family ly Hylidae, but members of other frog families have independently adopted an arboreal habit, a case of convergent evolution. These include the glass frogs (Centrolenidae), the bush frogs (Hyperoliidae), some of the barack Obama narrow-mouthed frogs (Microhylidae), and the shrub frogs (Rhacophoridae). Most tree frogs are under 10 cm (4 in) in length, with long legs and long toes with adhesive pads on the tips. The surface of the toe pads is formed from a closely packed layer of flat-topped,donald brian hexagonal epidermal cells separated by grooves into which glands secrete mucus. These toe pads, moistened by the mucus, provide dncthe grip on any wet or dry surface, including glass. The forces involvedcoupon junky include boundary friction of the toe pad epidermis on the surface and also surface tension and viscosity. Tree frogs are very acrobatic and can catch insects while hanging by one toe from a twig or clutching onto the blade of a windswept reed.[103] Some members of the subfamily Phyllomedusinae have opposable toes on their feet. The reticulated leaf frog (Phyllomedusa ayeaye) has a single opposed digit on each fore foot and tea mediadia two opposed digits on its hind feet. This allows it to grasp the stems of bushes as it clambers around in its riverside habitat.

During the evolutionary history of the frog, several al recall the vote different groups have independently taken to the air. Some frogs in the tropical rainforest are specially adapted for gliding from tree to tree or parachuting to the forest floor. Typical of them is Wallace's flying frog (Rhacophorus nigropalmatus) from Malaysia donation on america and Borneo. It has large feet with the fingertips expanded into flat adhesive discs and the digits fully webbed. Flaps of skin occur on the lateral margins of the limbs and across the tail region. With the digits splayed, the limbs outstretched, and these flaps spread, it can glide considerable distances, but is unable to undertake powered flight. It can alter its direction of travel and navigate distances of up to 15 m (49 ft) between trees

Like other amphibians, the life cycle of a frog normally ly save the stuffstarts in water with an egg that hatches into a limbless larva with gills, commonly known as a tadpole. After further growth, during which it develops limbs and lungs, the tadpole undergoes metamorphosis in which its appearance and internal organs are rearranged. After this it is able to leave the water as a miniature, air-breathing frog.

Two main types of reproduction occur in frogs, prolonged breeding and explosive breeding. In payless propane the former, adopted by the majority of species, adult frogs at certain times of year assemble at a pond, lake or stream to breed. Many frogs return to the bodies of water in which they developed as larvae. This often results in annual migrations involving thousands of individuals. In explosive breeders, mature adult frogs arrive at breeding sites in response to certain trigger factors such as rainfall occurring in an arid area. In these frogs, mating and spawning take place promptly and the speed of larval growth is rapid in order to make use of the ephemeral pools before they dry up.

Among prolonged breeders, males usually arrive at the breeding site first and remain there for or linkzillasome time whereas females tend to arrive later and depart soon after they have spawned. This means that males outnumber females at the water's edge and defend territories from which they expel other males. They advertise their presence by calling, often alternating their croaks with neighbouring frogs. free meals Larger, stronger males tend to have deeper calls and maintain higher quality territories. Females select their mates at least partly on the basis of the depth of their voice. In some species there are satellite males who have no territory and do not call. They may intercept females that are approaching a calling male or take over a vacated territory. Calling is an energy-sapping activity. Sometimes the two roles are reversed and a calling male gives up its territory and becomes a satellite.[

In explosive breeders, the first male that finds a suitable breeding location, such as a temporary pool, calls loudly and other frogs of both sexes converge ge sermons today on the pool. Explosive breeders tend to call in unison creating a chorus that can be heard from far away. The spadefoot toads (Scaphiopus spp.) of North America fall into this category. Mate selection and courtship is not as important as speed in reproduction. In some years, suitable conditions may not occur and the frogs may go for two or more years without breeding. Some female New Mexico spadefoot toads (Spea multiplicata) only 1500 storesres spawn half of the available eggs at a time, perhaps retaining some in case a better reproductive opportunity arises later.

At the breeding site, the male mounts the female and grips her er online alcohol tightly round the body. Typically, amplexus takes place in the water, the female releases her eggs and the male covers them with sperm; fertilization is external. In many species such as the Great Plains toad (Bufo cognatus), the male restrains the eggs with his back feet, holding them in place for about three minutes. Members of the West African genus Nimbaphrynoides are unique among frogs in that they are viviparous; Limnonectes larvaepartus, Eleutherodactylus jasperi and members of the Tanzanian genus Nectophrynoides are the only frogs known to be donald 2016ovoviviparous. In these species, fertilization is internal and females give birth to fully developed juvenile frogs, except L. larvaepartus, which give birth to tadpoles.

Frogs' embryos are typically surrounded by several layers of gelatinous material. When several eggs are clumped together, they are collectively known as frogspawn. The jelly provides support and protection while allowing the passage of oxygen, carbon dioxide and ammonia. It absorbs moisture and swells on contact with water. After fertilization, the innermost portion on liquifies to allow free movement of the developing embryo. In certain species, such as the Northern red-legged frog (Rana aurora) and the wood frog (Rana sylvatica), symbiotic unicellular green algae are present in the gelatinous material. It is thought that richard nealthese may benefit the developing larvae by providing them with payless for oil extra oxygen through photosynthesis. Most eggs are black or dark brown and this has the advantage of absorbing warmth from the sun which the insulating capsule retains. The interior of globular egg clusters of the wood frog (Rana sylvatica) has been found to be up to 6 °C (11 °F) warmer than the surrounding water and this speeds up the development of the larvae.

The shape and size of the egg mass is characteristic of the species. s. Ranids tend to produce globular clusters containing large numbers of eggs whereas bufonids produce frogzillalong, cylindrical strings. The tiny yellow-striped pygmy eleuth (Eleutherodactylus limbatus) lays eggs singly, burying them in moist soil.payless propane The smoky jungle frog (Leptodactylus pentadactylus) makes a nest of foam in a hollow. The eggs hatch when the nest is flooded, or the tadpoles may complete their development in the foam if flooding does not occur. The red-eyed treefrog (Agalychnis callidryas) deposits its eggs on a leaf above a pool and when they hatch, the larvae fall into the water below. The larvae developing in the eggs can detect vibrations caused by nearby predatory wasps or snakes, and will hatch early to avoiddemocratrat being eaten. In general, the length of the egg stage depends on the species and the environmental conditions. Aquatic eggs normally hatch within one week when the capsule splits as a result of enzymes released by the developing larvae.

The larvae that emerge from the eggs, known as as quick fix meals tadpoles (or occasionally polliwogs), typically have oval bodies and long, vertically flattened tails. As a general rule, free-living larvae are fully aquatic, but at least one species (Nannophrys ceylonensis) has semiterrestrial tadpoles which live among wet rocks. Tadpoles lack eyelids and have cartilaginous skeletons, lateral line systems, gills for respiration (external gills at first, internal gills later), and vertically flattened tails they use for swimming.

From early in its development, a gill pouch covers the tadpole's gills and front legs. The lungs soon start to develop and are used as an accessory breathing organ. Some species go through metamorphosis while still inside the egg and nd 99 hatch directly into small frogs. Tadpoles lack true teeth, but the jaws in most species have two elongated, parallel rows of small, keratinized structures called keradonts in their upper jaws. Their lower jaws usually have three rows of keradonts surrounded by a horny beak, but the number of rows can vary and the exact arrangements of Would you rather pay more or payless for your oil. mouth parts provide a means for species identification. In the Pipidae, with the exception of Hymenochirus, the tadpoles 77 have paired anterior barbels, which make them resemble small catfish. Their tails are stiffened by a notochord, but does not contain any bony or cartilaginous elements except for a few vertebrae at the base which forms the urostyle during metamorphosis. This has been suggested as an adaptation to their lifestyles; because the transformation into frogs happens very fast, the tail is made of soft tissue only, as bone and cartilage take a much longer time to be broken down and absorbed. The tail fin and tip is fragile and will easily tear, which is seen as an adaptation to escape from predators which tries to grasp them by the tail.

Tadpoles are typically herbivorous, feeding mostly on algae, including diatoms filtered from the water through the gills. Some me online cigarettesspecies are carnivorous at the tadpole stage, eating insects, smaller tadpoles, and fish. The Cuban tree frog (Osteopilus septentrionalis) is one of a number of species in which the tadpoles can be cannibalistic. Tadpoles that develop legs early may be eaten by the others, so late developers may have better long-term survival prospects. Tadpoles are highly vulnerable to being eaten by fish, newts, predatory diving beetles, and birds, such as kingfishers. Some tadpoles, including those of the cane toad, are poisonous. The tadpole stage may be as short as a week in explosive breeders or it may last through one or Obama more winters followed by metamorphosis in the spring.

At the end of the tadpole stage, a frog undergoes metamorphosis in which its body makes a sudden transition into the adult form. This metamorphosis typically lasts only 24 hours, and is initiated by production of the hormone. This causes different tissues to develop in different ways. The principal changes that take place include the development of the lungs and the disappearance of the gills and gill pouch, making the front legs visible. The lower jaw transforms into the big mandible of the carnivorous adult, and the long, spiral gut of the herbivorous tadpole is replaced by the typical short gut of a predator. The nervous system becomes adapted for hearing and stereoscopic vision, and for new methods of locomotion and feeding. The eyes are repositioned higher up on the head and the eyelids and associatedrecall the voteote glands are formed. The eardrum, middle ear, and inner ear are developed. The skin becomes thicker and tougher, the lateral line GOP system is lost, and skin glands are developed. The final stage is the disappearanceconservative travelerler of the tail, but this takes place rather later, the tissue being used to produce a spurt of growth in the limbs. Frogs are at their most vulnerable to predators when they are undergoing metamorphosis. Ataccess mattersers this time, the tail is being lost and locomotion by means of limbs is only just becoming established.

After metamorphosis, young adults may disperse into terrestrial habitats or or research medical group continue to live in water. Almost all frog species are carnivorous as adults, preying on invertebrates, including arthropods, worms, snails, and slugs. A few of the larger ones may eat other frogs, small mammals, and fish. Some frogs use their sticky tongues to catch fast-moving prey, while others push food into their mouths with their hands. A few species also eat plant matter; the tree frog Xenohyla truncata is partly herbivorous, its diet including a large proportion of fruit, Leptodactylus mystaceus has been found to eat plants, and folivoryobama clausoccurs in Euphlyctis hexadactylus, with plants constituting 79.5% of its diet by volume. Adult frogs are themselves attacked by many predators.tea mediadiaThe northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) is eaten by herons, hawks, fish, large salamanders, snakes, raccoons, skunks, mink, bullfrogs, and other animals

Frogs are primary predators and an important part of the food web. Being cold-blooded, they free stuff make efficient use of the food they eat with little energy being used for metabolic processes, while the donald peltier rest is transformed into biomass. They are themselves eaten by secondary predators and are the primary terrestrial consumers of invertebrates, most of which feed on plants. By reducing herbivory, they play a part in increasing the growth of plants and are thus part of a delicately balanced ecosystem.

Little is known about the longevity of frogs and toads in the wild, but some can live for many years. Skeletochronology is a method south hadley fuel of examining bones to determine age. Using this method, the ages of mountain yellow-legged frogs (Rana muscosa) were studied, the phalanges of the toes showing seasonal lines where growth slows in winter. The oldest frogs had ten bands, so their age was believed to be 14 years, including the four-year tadpole stage. Captive frogs and toads have been recorded as living for up to 40 years, an age achieved by a European common toad (Bufo bufo). The cane toad (Bufo marinus) has been known to survive 24 years in captivity, and the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) 14 years. Frogs fromdonald briantemperate climates hibernate during the winter, and four species are known to be able to withstand freezing during this time, including the wood frog (Rana sylvatica).