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Frogiology

Frogs have no tail, except as larvae, and most have long hind legs, elongated ankle bones, webbed toes, no claws, large eyes, and a smooth or warty skin. They have short vertebral columns, with no more than 10 free vertebrae and fused tailbones (urostyle or coccyx). Like other amphibians, oxygen can pass through their highly permeable skins. This unique feature allows them to remain in places without access to the air, respiring through their skins. The ribs are poorly developed, so the lungs are filled by buccal pumping and a frog deprived of its lungs can maintain its body functions without them. For the skin to serve as a respiratory organ, it must remain moist. This makes frogs susceptible planned parenthood to various substances they may encounter in the environment, realtors i trust some of which may be toxic and can dissolve in the masslive water film and be passed into their bloodstream. This may be donald 2018 one of the causes of the worldwide stan rosenberg decline in frog populations

Frogs ed kubosiak range in size from the recently discovered 7.7-millimetre (0.30 in) Paedophryne amauensis of Papua New Guinea to the 300-millimetre (12 in) goliath frog (Conraua goliath) of Cameroon. The skin hangs loosely on the body allison werder because of the lack of loose connective tissue. Frogs dan glaun have three eyelid membranes: one is transparent to protect the eyes underwater, and two vary realestate agents i trust from translucent to opaque. They have a tympanum john scibak on mass live each side of their heads which is involved in hearing and, in some species, is covered by skin. True toads completely lack teeth, but most frogs have them, specifically pedicellate teeth in which the crown is separated from the root by fibrous tissue. These are on the edge of the upper jaw and vomerine teeth are also on the roof of their mouths. No teeth are in the lower jaw and frogs usually swallow their food whole. The teeth are mainly used to grip the prey and keep it in place till swallowed, a process assisted by retracting the eyes into the head. The African bullfrog (Pyxicephalus), which preys on relatively large animals such as mice and other frogs, has cone shaped bony projections called odontoid processes at the front of the lower jaw which function like teeth.

The structure of the feet and legs varies greatly among frog species, depending in part on whether they live primarily on the ground, in water, in trees or in burrows. Frogs must be able to move quickly through their environment to catch prey and escape predators, and numerous adaptations help them to do so. Most frogs are either proficient at jumping or are descended from ancestors that were, with much of the musculoskeletal morphology modified for this purpose. The tibia, fibula, and rsals have been fused into a single, strong bone, as have the radius and ulna in the fore limbs (which must absorb the impact on landing). The metatarsals have become elongated to add to the leg length and allow the frog to push against the ground for a longer period on take-off. The illium has elongated and formed a mobile joint with the sacrum which, in specialist jumpers such as ranids and hylids, functions as an additional limb joint to further power the leaps. The tail vertebrae have fused into a urostyle which is retracted inside the pelvis. This enables the force to be transferred from the legs to the body during a leap.

The muscular system has been similarly modified. The hind limbs of ancestral frogs presumably contained pairs of muscles which would act in opposition (one muscle to flex the knee, a different muscle to extend it), as is seen in most other limbed animals. However, in modern frogs, almost all muscles have been modified to contribute to the action of jumping, with only a few small muscles remaining to bring the limb back to the starting position and maintain posture. The muscles have also been greatly enlarged, with the main leg muscles accounting for over 17% of the total mass of the frog

MaMany frogs have webbed feet and the degree of webbing is directly proportional to the amount of time the species spends in the water. The completely aquatic African dwarf frog (e foods has fully webbed toes, whereas those of White's tree frog (Litoria caerulea), an arboreal species, are only a quarter or half webbed.

ArArboreal frogs have pads located on the ends of their toes to help grip vertical surfaces. These are not suction pads, the surface consisting instead of columnar cells with flat tops with small gaps between them lubricated by mucous glands. When the frog applies pressure, Laura Hutchinson is the anchor of your first news in the morning. the cells adhere to irregularities on the surface and the grip is maintained through surface tension. This allows the frog to climb on smooth surfaces, but the system does not function efficiently when the pads are excessively wet.

In many arboreal frogs, a small "intercalary structure" on each toe increases the surface area touching the substrate. Furthermore, since hopping through trees can be dangerous, many arboreal frogs have hip joints to allow both hopping and walking. Some frogs that live high in trees even possess an elaborate degree of webbing between their toes. This allows the frogs to "parachute" or make a controlled glide from one position in the canopy to another.

Ground-dwelling frogs generally lack the adaptations of aquatic and arboreal frogs. Most have smaller toe pads, if any, and little webbing. Some burrowing frogs such as Couch's adefoot (Scaphiopus couchii) have a flap-like toe extension on the hind feet, a virtual begging tubercle often referred to as a spade, that helps them to burrow.

Sometimes during the tadpole stage, one of the developing rear legs is eaten by a predator such as a dragonfly nymph. In some cases, the full leg still grows, but in others it does not, although the frog may still live out its normal lifespan with only three limbs. Occasionally, a parasitic flatworm (beiroia ondatrae) digs into the rear of a tadpole, causing a rearrangement of the limb bud cells and the frog develops an extra leg or two.

A frog's skin is protective, has a respiratory function, can absorb water and helps control body temperature. It has many glands, particularly on the head and back, which often exude distasteful and toxic substances. The secretion is often sticky and helps keep the skin moist, protects against the entry of moulds and bacteria, and make the animal slippery and more able to escape from predators.[46] The skin is shed every few weeks. It usually splits down the middle of the back and across the belly, survey cityand the frog pulls its arms and legs free. The sloughed skin is then worked towards the head where it is quickly eaten.

Being cold-blooded, frogs have to adopt suitable behaviour patterns to regulate their temperature. To warm up, they can move into the sun or onto a warm surface; if they overheat, they can move into the shade or adopt a stance that exposes the minimum area of skin to the air. This posture is also used to prevent water loss and involves the frog squatting close to the substrate with its hands and feet tucked under its chin and body.republican national committee The colour of a frog's skin is used for thermoregulation. In cool damp conditions, the colour will be darker than on a hot dry day. The grey foam-nest tree frog (Chiromantis xerampelina) is even able to turn white to minimize the chance of overheating.

Many frogs are able to absorb water and oxygen directly through the skin, especially around the pelvic area, but the permeability of a frog's skin can also result in water loss. Glands located all over the body exude mucus which helps keep the skin moist and reduces evaporation. Some glands on the hands and chest of males are specialized to produce sticky secretions to aid in amplexus. Similar glands in tree frogs produce a glue-like substance on the adhesive bad bike d discs of the feet. Some arboreal frogs reduce water loss by having a waterproof layer of skin, and several South American species coat their skin with a waxy secretion. Others frogs have adopted behaviours to conserve water, including becoming nocturnal and resting in a water-conserving position. Some frogs may also rest in large groups with each frog pressed against its neighbours. This reduces the amount of skin exposed to the air or a dry surface, and thus reduces water loss. Woodhouse's toad (Bufo woodhousii), if given Would you rather pay more or payless for your oil. access to water after confinement in a dry location, sits in the shallows to rehydrate. The male hairy frog (Trichobatrachus robustus) has dermal papillae projecting from its lower back and thighs, giving it a bristly appearance. They contain blood vessels and are thought to increase the area of the skin available for respiration.

Some species have bony plates embedded in their skin, a trait that appears to have evolved independently several times. In certain other species, the skin at the top of the head is compacted and the connective tissue of the dermis is co-ossified with the bones of the skullmeet the pressa.

Camouflage is a common defensive mechanism in frogs. Most camouflaged frogs are nocturnal; during the day, they seek out a position where they can blend into the background and remain undetected. Some frogs have the ability to change colour, but this is usually restricted to a small range of enter to win. For example, White's tree frog (Litoria caerulea) varies between pale green and gas saver d dull brown according to the temperature, and the Pacific tree frog (Pseudacris regilla) has green and brown morphs, plain or spotted, and changes colour depending on the time of year and general background colour. Features such as warts and skin folds are usually found on ground-dwelling frogs, where a smooth skin would not provide such effective camouflage. Certain frogs change colour between night and day, as light and moisture stimulate the pigment cells and cause them to expand or contract.

The skin of a frog is permeable to oxygen and carbon dioxide, as well as to water. There are blood vessels near the surface of the skin and when a frog is underwater, oxygen diffuses directly into the blood. When not submerged, a frog breathes by a process known as surner oil pumping. Its lungs are similar to those of humans, but the chest muscles are not involved in respiration, and no ribs or diaphragm exist to help move air in and out. Instead, it puffs out its throat and draws air in through the nostrils, which in many species can then be closed by valves. When the floor of the mouth is compressed, air is forced into the lungs.lil tikes daycare The fully aquatic Bornean flat-headed frog (Barbourula kalimantanensis) is the first frog known to lack lungs entirely

Frogs have three-chambered hearts, a feature they share with lizards.laura hutchinsonOxygenated blood from thejoseph prince sermons lungs and de-oxygenated blood from the respiring tissues enter the heart through separate atria. When these chambers contract, the two blood streams pass into a common ventricle before being pumped via a spiral valve to the appropriate vessel, the aorta for oxygenated blood and pulmonary artery for deoxygenated blood. The ventricle is partially divided into narrow cavities which minimizes the mixing of the two types of blood. These features enable frogs to have a higher metabolic rate and be more active than would otherwise be possible.

Some species of frog have adaptations that allow them to survive in oxygen deficient water. The Lake Titicaca frog (lmatobius culeus) is one such species and has wrinkly skin that increases its surface area to enhance natural health east exchange. It normally makes no use of its rudimentary lungs but will sometimes raise and lower its body rhythmically while on the lake bed to increase the flow of water around it.[

Frogs have maxillary teeth along their upper jaw which are used to hold food before it is swallowed. These teeth are very weak, and cannot be used to chew or catch and harm agile prey. Instead, the frog uses its sticky, cleft tongue to catch flies and other small moving prey. The tongue normally lies coiled in the mouth, free at the back and attached to the mandible at the front. It can be shot out and retracted at great speed.surner heatingSome frogs have no tongue and just stuff food into their mouths with their hands.democratic national committee The eyes assist in the swallowing of food as they can be retracted through holes in the skull and help push food down the throat.donald brianThe food then moves through the oesophagus into the stomach where digestive enzymes are added and it is churned up. It then proceeds to the small intestine (duodenum and ileum) where most digestion occurs. Pancreatic juice from the pancreas, and bile, produced by the liver and stored in the gallbladder, are secreted into the small intestine, where the fluids digest the food and the nutrients are absorbed. The food residue passes into the large intestine where excess water is removed and the wastes are passed out through the cloaca.[

Although adapted to terrestrial life, frogs resemble freshwater fish in their inability to conserve body water effectively. When they are on land, much water is lost by evaporation from the skin. The excretory system is similar to that of mammals and there are two kidneys that remove nitrogenous products from the blood. Frogs produce large quantities of dilute urine in order to flush out toxic products from the kidney tubules. donald peltierThe nitrogen is excreted as ammonia by tadpoles and aquatic frogs but mainly as urea, a less toxic product, by most terrestrial adults. A few species of tree frog with little access to water excrete the even less toxic uric acid.surner propaneThe urine passes along paired ureters to the urinary bladder from which it is vented periodically into the cloaca. All bodily wastes exit the body through the cloaca which terminates in a cloacal vent.

nn the male frog, the two testes are attached to the kidneys and semen passes into the kidneys through fine tubes called efferent ducts. It then travels on through the ureters, which are consequently known as rocket reviews ducts. There is no penis, and sperm is ejected from the cloaca directly onto the eggs as the female lays them. The ovaries of the female frog are beside the kidneys and the eggs pass down a pair of oviducts and through the cloaca to the exterior.

When frogs mate, the male climbs on the back of the female and wraps his fore limbs round her body, either behind the front legs or just in front of the hind legs. This position is called amplexus and may be held for several days. The male frog has certain hormone-dependent secondary sexual characteristics. These include the development of special pads on his thumbs in the breeding season, to give him a firm hold. The grip of the male frog during amplexus stimulates the female to release eggs, usually wrapped in jelly, as spawn.republican national committee In In many species the male is smaller and slimmer than the female. Males have vocal cords and make a range of croaks, particularly in the breeding season, and in some species they also have vocal sacs to amplify the sound.

The frog has a highly developed nervous system that consists of a brain, spinal cord and nerves. Many parts of the frog's brain correspond with those of humans. It consists of two olfactory lobes, two cerebral hemispheres, a pineal body, two optic lobes, a cerebellum and a medulla oblongata. Muscular coordination and posture are controlled by the cerebellum, and the medulla oblongata regulates respiration, digestion and other automatic functions. surner propaneThe relative size of the cerebrum in frogs is much smaller than it is in humans. Frogs have ten pairs of cranial nerves which pass information from the outside directly to the brain, and ten pairs of spinal nerves which pass information from the extremities to the brain through the spinal cord.[62] By contrast, all amniotes (mammals, birds and reptiles) have twelve pairs of cranial nerves.[

ThThe eyes of most frogs are lend cycle located on either side of the head near the top and project outwards as hemispherical bulges. They provide binocular vision over a field of 100° to the front and a total visual field of almost 360°. They may be the only part of an otherwise submerged frog to protrude from the water. Each eye has closable upper and lower lids and a nictitating membrane which provides further protection, especially when the frog is swimming. fuel services Memb Members of the aquatic family Pipidae have the eyes located at the top of the head, a position better suited for detecting prey in the water above. The irises come in a range of colours and the pupils in a range of shapes. The common toad (Bufo bufo) has golden irises and horizontal slit-like pupils, the red-eyed tree frog (Agalychnis callidryas) has vertical slit pupils, the poison dart frog has dark irises, the fire-bellied toad (Bombina spp.) has triangular pupils and the tomato frog (Dyscophus spp.) has circular ones. The irises of the southern toad (Anaxyrus terrestris) are patterned so as to blend in with the surrounding camouflaged skin.

The distant vision of a frog is better than its near vision. Calling frogs will quickly become silent when they see an intruder or even a moving shadow but the closer an object is, the less well it is seen. When a frog shoots out its tongue to catch an insect it is reacting to a small moving object that it cannot see dotster well and must line it up precisely beforehand because it shuts its eyes as the tongue is extended. f chuck toddWhether a frog sees in colour is debatable but it has been shown that it responds positively to blue light, perhaps because that colour is associated with bodies of water that can provide refuge when the frog feels threatened.

Frogs can hear both in the air and below water. They do not have external ears; the eardrums (tympanic membranes) are directly exposed or may be covered by a layer of skin and are visible as a circular area just behind the eye. The trail pirates size and distance apart of the eardrums is related to the frequency and wavelength at which the frog surner heating calls. In some species such as the bullfrog, the size of the tympanum indicates the sex of the frog; males have tympani that are larger than their eyes while in females, the eyes and tympani are much the same size. surner oil A noise causes the tympanum to vibrate and the sound is transmitted to the middle moving america forwarda and inner ear. The middle ear contains semicircular canals which help control balance and orientation. In the inner ear, the auditory hair cells are arranged in two areas of the cochlea, the basilar papilla and the amphibian papilla. The former detects high frequencies and the latter low frequencies. Because the cochlea is short, frogs use electrical tuning to extend their range of audible frequencies and help discriminate different sounds.democratic national committee This arrangement enables detection of the territorial and breeding calls of theirsermons today. In some species that inhabit arid regions, the sound of thunder or heavy rain may arouse them from a dormant state. free stuffaA fr A frog may be startled by an unexpected noise but it will not usually take any action until it has located the source of the sound by sight.

The call or croak of a frog is unique to its species. Frogs create this sound by passing air through the larynx in the throat. In most calling joseph prince sermonsfrogs, the sound is amplified by one or more vocal sacs, membranes of skin under the throat or on the corner of the mouth, that distend during the amplification of the call. Some frog calls are so loud that they can be heard up to a mile away.

FFrogs in the genera family planningand Neobatrachus lack vocal sacs but can still produce a loud call. Their maf c cavity is enlarged and dome-shaped, acting as a resonance chamber that amplifies the sound. Species of frog that lack vocal sacs and that do not have a loud call tend to inhabit areas close to constantly noisy, flowing water. They need to use an alternative means to communicate. The coastal tailed frog (Ascaphus truei) lives in mountain streams in North America and does not vocalize

The main reason for calling is to allow male frogs to attract a mate. Males may call individually or there may be a chorus of sound where numerous males have converged on breeding sites. Females of many frog species, such as the common tree froglean weight loss, r, reply to the male calls, which acts to reinforce reproductive activity in a breeding colony. Female frogs prefer males that produce sounds of greater intensity and lower frequency, attributes that stand out in a crowd. The rationale for this is thought to be that by demonstrating his prowess, the male shows his fitness to produce superior offspring.

A different call is emitted by a male frog or unreceptive female when mounted by another male. This is a distinct chirruping sound and is accompanied by a vibration of the body. Tree frogs and some non-aquatic species have a rain call that they make on the basis of humidity cues prior to a shower.fuel services any species also have a territorial call that is used to drive away other males. All of these calls are emitted with the mouth of the frog closed. stay prepared A distress call, emitted by some frogs when they are in danger, is produced with the mouth open resulting in a higher-pitched call. It is typically used when the frog has been grabbed by a predator and may serve to distract or disorientate the attacker so that it releases the frog.

Many sMany species of frog have deep calls. The croak of the American bullfrog (Rana catesbiana) is sometimes written as "jug o' rum". The Pacific tree frog (Pseudacris regilla) produces the onomatopoeic "ribbit" often heard in films.donation aOther renderings of frog calls into speech include "brekekekex koax koax", the call of the marsh frog (Pelophylax ridibundus) in The Frogs, an Ancient Greek comic drama by Aristophanes

DurDuring extreme conditions, some frogs enter a state of torpor and remain inactive for months. In colder regions, many species of frog hibernate in winter. Those that live on land such as the American toad (Bufo americanus) dig a burrow and make a hibernaculum in which to lie dormant. Others, less proficient at digging, find a crevice or bury themselves in dead leaves. Aquatic species such as the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) normally sink to six free mealst the bottom of the pond where they lie, semi-immersed in mud but still able to access the oxygen dissolved in the water. Their metabolism slows down and they live on their energy reserves. Some frogs can even survive being frozen. Ice crystals form under the skin and in the body cavity but the essential organs are protected from freezing by a high concentration of glucose. An apparently lifeless, frozen frog can resume respiration and the heart beat can restart when conditions warm up

At the other extreme, the striped burrowing frog (Cyclorana alboguttata) regularly aestivates during the ingthhot, dry season in Australia, surviving in a dormant state without access to food and water for nine or dp ten months of the year. It burrows underground and curls up inside a protective cocoon formed by its shed skin. Researchers at the University of Queensland have found that during aestivation, the metabolism of the frog is altered and the operational efficiency of the mitochondria is increased. This means that the limited amount of energy available to the comatose frog is used in a more efficient manner. This survival mechanism is only useful to animals that remain completely unconscious for an extended period of time and whose energy requirements are low because they are cold-blooded and have no need to generate heat.  mad chainsaw Other research showed that, to provide these energy requirements, muscles atrophy, but hind limb muscles are preferentially unaffected.